Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to intelligence exhibited
by machines and describes a system
capable learning directly from data
without being pre-programmed.
The oldest and most ambitious objectives of computer science were to enable a machine to learn, adapt, organize and repair itself. Meanwhile substantial progresses has been made in many fields especially in techniques for Machine Learning (ML). By Artificial Intelligence the goal gets ever closer and is not about building a robot but a computer mind that can think like a human but better and faster. The general purpose is to build a machine that learns from experience and data which can perform in a wide variety of tasks. AI is a capability made possible by data analytics and apply either through a set of rules or increasingly through the process of Machine Learning. ML is a subset of AI like Deep learning on the other hand is a subset of machine learning. Deep Learning, which is a technique for implementing ML, made a great step forward through DeepMind´s notorious AlphaGo algorithms which defeated one of the most famous professional Go Player Lee Sedol earlier in 2016. The algorithm is not pre-programmed and learns from experience by “showing” the system more than 100.000 games to teach it. Broadly speaking the term AI is used to describe when a machine mimics “cognitive” functions that is associated with human minds.
Main difficulties of AI are reasoning, knowledge, planning, manipulate objects, natural processing and perception.
In fact progresses in Deep Learning and the access to large amounts of data as well as faster computer techniques have enabled several practical applications of Machine Learning and thus in the overall field of AI. AI has already a huge effect on most people´s life and its influence strongly increases. Examples are Virtual Personal Assistants like Siri or Google Now, Smart Cars, Purchase Predictions, Fraud Detections, News Generation etc.
Like astronautics provided the ground work for rockets, general purpose technologies and digital neural networks could set the ground work for an emerging science that brings unimaginable changes in the near future. We might be at a historic and critical point in AI, where deep mind learning and AI enters our smartphones and computers. Beyond that AI applications could take over many of information intensive, specialized jobs in the future which is demonstrated by AI based technologies like Legal tech already.
Scientist came to the conclusion that after many decades of attempting to build smarter computers and algorithms it turns out that the best blueprint has always been the human brain and AI is the best model of it.
Literature: Russell, Stuart J.; Norvig, Peter; Davis, Ernest (2010): Artificial intelligence. A modern approach. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.